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Primož Gabrijelčič

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Everything posted by Primož Gabrijelčič

  1. While writing Design Patterns with Delphi, I spent quite some time researching existing literature on design patterns implementation in Delphi, design patterns in other languages, other types of patterns, design principles and so on … In case you would like to dig deeper than the book takes you, here is my reading list. Design Patterns Essentials Software design pattern Computer Science Design Patterns The 23 patterns from the GoF Design Patterns with examples in different languages (including Delphi) Gang of Four Design Patterns Reference Sheet Programming principles Design principles and design patterns SOLID Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY) KISS YAGNI (You Ain't Gonna Need It) Software Design Patterns Are Not Goals, They Are Tools I'm Sick Of GoF Design Patterns Software Development AntiPatterns Big Ball of Mud Design Patterns for Humans Spring4D MMX Code Explorer Singleton https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singleton_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Singleton http://www.yanniel.info/2010/10/singleton-pattern-delphi.html https://ibeblog.com/2010/08/18/delphi-singleton-patterns/ https://stackoverflow.com/a/1409672/4997 https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Creational.Singleton https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1409593/creating-a-singleton-in-delphi-using-the-new-features-of-d2009-and-d2010 https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/singleton https://schellingerhout.github.io/design%20patterns/design-patterns-creational-delphi/ https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-singleton Dependency injection https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dependency_injection http://www.nickhodges.com/post/Service-Locator-is-Indeed-an-Anti-pattern.aspx https://softwareengineering.stackexchange.com/questions/135914/why-was-dependency-injection-pattern-not-included-in-the-gang-of-four/135982 https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4176520/what-is-the-difference-between-strategy-pattern-and-dependency-injection Lazy Initialization https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lazy_initialization Object pool https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_pool_pattern https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/object_pool Factory method https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Factory_method_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Factory_method https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Creational.FactoryMethod https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/factory_method https://schellingerhout.github.io/design%20patterns/design-patterns-creational-delphi/ https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-factory-method Abstract factory https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_factory_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Abstract_Factory http://www.felix-colibri.com/papers/design_patterns/factory_and_bridge_patterns/factory_and_bridge_patterns.html#abstract_factory_pattern https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Creational.AbstractFactory http://www.nickhodges.com/post/Delphi-and-the-Factory-Pattern-Simple-Factory.aspx https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/abstract_factory https://schellingerhout.github.io/design%20patterns/design-patterns-creational-delphi/ https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-abstract-factory Prototype https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/prototype https://schellingerhout.github.io/design%20patterns/design-patterns-creational-delphi/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Object_copying#Deep_copy https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-prototype Builder https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Builder_pattern https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Creational.Builder https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/builder https://schellingerhout.github.io/design%20patterns/design-patterns-creational-delphi/ https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-builder Composite https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Composite https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Composite https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/composite https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-composite Flyweight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flyweight_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Flyweight https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/flyweight https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-flyweight https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/String_interning Marker interface https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marker_interface_pattern Bridge https://stackoverflow.com/questions/350404/how-do-the-proxy-decorator-adapter-and-bridge-patterns-differ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bridge_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Bridge https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Bridge https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/bridge http://www.felix-colibri.com/papers/design_patterns/factory_and_bridge_patterns/factory_and_bridge_patterns.html#the_bridge_design_pattern https://simpleprogrammer.com/design-patterns-simplified-the-bridge-pattern/ https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-bridge https://stackoverflow.com/q/319728/4997 Adapter https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adapter_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Adapter https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Adapter https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/adapter https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-adapter Proxy https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Proxy https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Proxy https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/proxy https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-proxy Decorator https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decorator_pattern https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Decorator https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/decorator https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-decorator Facade https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facade_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Facade https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Structural.Facade https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/facade https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-facade Null object https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Null_object_pattern https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/null_object Template method https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template_method_pattern https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.TemplateMethod https://www.codeproject.com/Articles/516094/TemplateplusMethodplusDesignplusPatternplusinplusD https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/template_method https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-template-method Command https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Command https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.Command https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/command https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-command https://stackoverflow.com/q/6064116/4997 State https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/State https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.State https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/state https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/state/delphi https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-state https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite-state_machine Iterator https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iterator_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Iterator https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.Iterator https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/iterator https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-iterator http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/RADStudio/Tokyo/en/Declarations_and_Statements_(Delphi)#For_Statements Visitor https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visitor_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Visitor https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.Visitor https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/visitor https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/visitor/delphi https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-visitor Observer https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Observer_pattern https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Publish–subscribe_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Observer https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.Observer https://github.com/spinettaro/delphi-event-bus https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/observer/delphi https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-observer http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/Libraries/en/System.Messaging.TMessageManager http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/RADStudio/en/Using_the_RTL_Cross-Platform_Messaging_Solution http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/RADStudio/en/Sending_and_Receiving_Messages_Using_the_RTL http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/Libraries/en/System.Classes.TComponent.Observers Memento https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Memento_pattern https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Computer_Science_Design_Patterns/Memento https://github.com/jimmckeeth/DelphiPatterns/tree/master/Behavioral.Memento https://sourcemaking.com/design_patterns/memento https://github.com/kamranahmedse/design-patterns-for-humans#-memento Lock https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lock_(computer_science) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinlock Lock striping https://netjs.blogspot.si/2016/05/lock-striping-in-java-concurrency.html Double-checked locking https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Double-checked_locking https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Test_and_test-and-set Optimistic locking https://www.javaworld.com/article/2075406/java-web-development/optimistic-locking-pattern-for-ejbs.html https://martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/optimisticOfflineLock.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optimistic_concurrency_control Readers-writer lock https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Readers–writer_lock https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/sync/slim-reader-writer--srw--locks Thread pool https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thread_pool https://stackoverflow.com/questions/47504201/delphi-ttask-and-tthreadpool Messaging https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_passing https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_queue Future https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Futures_and_promises Pipeline https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staged_event-driven_architecture Designing Delphi programs https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Event-driven_programming http://blong.com/Articles/Actions/Actions.htm https://github.com/andrea-magni/TFrameStand https://martinfowler.com/eaaCatalog/tableModule.html https://stackoverflow.com/questions/433819/table-module-vs-domain-model http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/RADStudio/en/LiveBindings_in_RAD_Studio https://www.embarcadero.com/images/dm/technical-papers/understanding_rad_studio_livebindings.pdf Other kinds of patterns https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exception_handling http://wiki.c2.com/?ExceptionPatterns http://docwiki.embarcadero.com/Libraries/en/System.TObject.Destroy http://www.heaventools.com/eurekalog-exception-logger.htm http://www.madshi.net/madExceptDescription.htm https://github.com/project-jedi/jvcl https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debugging_patterns https://git-scm.com/docs/git-bisect http://www.washi.cs.waseda.ac.jp/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Woei-Kae-Chen.pdf https://github.com/colinj/Functional https://fsharpforfunandprofit.com/fppatterns/ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_programming_paradigms Books & papers Architectural Patterns, Pethuru Raj, Anupama Raman, Harihara Subramanian Coding in Delphi, Nick Hodges Concurrency with Modern C++, Rainer Grimm Concurrent Patterns and Best Practices, Atul S. Khot Dependency Injection in Delphi, Nick Hodges Design Patterns for Humans, Kamran Ahmed Design Patterns Past and Future, Aleksandar Bulajic Design Patterns - Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, John Vlissides Dive Into Design Patterns, Alexander Shvets Java Design Patterns, Devendra Singh More Coding in Delphi, Nick Hodges The Null Object Pattern, Bobby Woolf
  2. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Runtime Error on Closing with ScaleMM2 Memory Manager

    FastMM4 works perfectly and has no leaks as far as I know. We are using FastMM4 in Delphi applications that run 24/7 for years at the time and it works just fine. That holds for the latest FastMM from https://github.com/pleriche/FastMM4. I have no idea how built-in FastMM works. One should just be careful when running FastMM4 with /dFullDebugMode. In this mode, FastMM never returns memory to the operating system and your code can run out of memory. This is a feature, not a bug.
  3. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Runtime Error on Closing with ScaleMM2 Memory Manager

    Try to minimize the problem. Extract the problematic code from the application and try to reproduce. Or disable parts of the code which could relate to the problem and check if it went away.
  4. Original post: https://www.thedelphigeek.com/2019/02/design-patterns-with-delphi-book.html Hurrah, hurray, my third book is here! It’s called Hands-On Design Patterns with Delphi and (just like my first book) I wrote it for Packt Publishing. (The second book was self-published and I expect the fourth one to be, too.) As the name says, “Design Patterns with Delphi” deals with design patterns. It is a bit different from most of design pattern books and websites you will find on the Internet. Case in point A: There are no UML diagrams. I don‘t speak UML. Tried to learn it few times but for some reason the whole concept doesn‘t agree with me. If you like diagrams, don’t fear though. Any book on design patterns - and most websites covering that topic - will gladly show how any design pattern can be diagrammed. That, however, is not important and should not govern your decision to buy the book. More important is case in point B: This book speaks Delphi. All the examples are written in Delphi and language features are used to the full. I also covered few less known Delphi idioms in separate sections. You’ll still be able to follow the discussion even though you may program in a different Pascal dialect. There’s also case in point 😄 Examples make sense. I deeply dislike classical design pattern examples of the “And then we want to write this program for different toolkits and it should also be able to draw circles, not only squares” kind. Euch! I tried to find a good example for each design pattern. Admittedly, I ended with few examples that draw triangles and squares on screen (mostly because some patterns were designed specifically for solving such problems), but most of them are of a more practical nature. This book covers all three classical design pattern categories - Creational patterns, Structural patterns, and Behavioral patterns. It also discusses patterns from the newer Concurrency patterns category. At the end I threw in some borderline-pattern(ish) topics and ended with a discussion of few patterns that cannot be strictly classified as “design” patterns. In this book you’ll find: Chapter 1 An introduction to patterns. Exploration of design principles, design patterns, and idioms. A mention of anti-patterns. A short description of most important design principles. Delphi idioms: creating and destroying objects. Chapter 2 Creation patterns part 1. Singleton. Dependency injection. Lazy initialization. Object pool. Chapter 3 Creation patterns part 2. Factory method, Abstract factory, Prototype, Builder. Delphi idioms: Assign and AssignTo. Chapter 4 Structural patterns part 1. Composite. Flyweight. Marker interface. Bridge. Delphi idioms: comparers and hashers. Chapter 5 Structure patterns part 2. Adapter. Proxy. Decorator. Facade. Delphi idioms: replacing components in runtime. Also: helpers. Chapter 6 Behavioral patterns part 1. Null object. Template method. Command. State. Chapter 7 Behavioral patterns part 2. Iterator. Visitor. Observer. Memento. Delphi idioms: for .. in. Chapter 8 Concurrency patterns part 1. Locking. Lock striping. Double-checked locking. Optimistic locking. Readers-writers lock. Delphi idioms: tasks and threads. Also: bitwise operators. Chapter 9 Concurrency patterns part 2. Thread pool. Messaging. Future. Pipeline. Chapter 10 Writing Delphi programs. Event-driven programming. Actions. LiveBindings. Form inheritance. Frames. Data modules. Chapter 11 Wrapping it up. Exceptions. Debugging. Functional programming. I hope you will like this book and learn a lot from it. I know I did during the nine months I spent writing it. And if you find any bug in the code, let me know so I can correct it in the second release!
  5. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Storing iomnifuture in dynamic array

    Provide a minimal working example, please.
  6. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Hands-On Design Patterns with Delphi

    Congrats! I'm still waiting on mine 😞
  7. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Delphi permutation code complexity

    If we are talking about time complexity (which is the usual case) and not space complexity, you can think about O() as telling you how slower your code will become if you increase the input size. Very roughly put, O(some_function_of_n) will make the code some_function_of_n slower if you increase the input by a factor of n. If your code needs M time to process m elements and you now run it on 20*m elements, O(1) will do that in time M, O(n) in time 20*M, O(n^2) in time 400*M, and O(log n) in time 4*M.
  8. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Delphi permutation code complexity

    The code needs max log(maxint) steps for the first and the second loop, max 9 steps for the third loop. As the integer size is constant for a given platform, this is just O(1).
  9. Primož Gabrijelčič

    RNG FizzBuzz

    Today I learned about pseudo random number generator driven FizzBuzz (https://stackoverflow.com/q/20957693) and I couldn't stop myself from porting it to Delphi ... program FizzBuzzRandom; {$APPTYPE CONSOLE} {$R *.res} uses System.SysUtils; procedure FizzBuzz(upTo: integer); var i: integer; begin for i := 1 to upTodo begin if (i mod 15) = 1 then RandSeed := 1973472511; Write(TArray<string>.Create(i.ToString, 'Fizz', 'Buzz', 'FizzBuzz')[Random(521) mod 4], ' '); end; end; begin FizzBuzz(100); Readln; end.
  10. Primož Gabrijelčič

    RNG FizzBuzz

    Just for the fun of it, here's a parallel version of FizzBuzz. No RNGs were abused this time. program ParallelFizzBuzz; {$APPTYPE CONSOLE} {$R *.res} uses Winapi.Windows, System.SysUtils, System.Classes; var GWrittenOut: TArray<boolean>; procedure FB(num: integer; output: string; extra: integer); begin TThread.CreateAnonymousThread(procedure begin Sleep(num* 1000 + extra); if not GWrittenOut[num] then begin Write(output, ' '); GWrittenOut[num] := true; end; end).Start; end; procedure FizzBuzz(upTo: integer); var i: integer; begin SetLength(GWrittenOut, upTo+1); for i := 1 to upTodo FB(i, i.ToString, 900); for i := 1 to upTo div 3 do FB(i*3, 'Fizz', 500); for i := 1 to upTo div 5 do FB(i*5, 'Buzz', 500); for i := 1 to upTo div 15 do FB(i*15, 'FizzBuzz', 100); end; var Msg: TMsg; begin FizzBuzz(20); while not GWrittenOut[High(GWrittenOut)] do while integer(PeekMessage(msg, 0, 0, 0, PM_REMOVE)) <> 0 do begin TranslateMessage(Msg); DispatchMessage(Msg); end; Writeln; Write('> '); Readln; end.
  11. Primož Gabrijelčič

    ANN: Parnassus Bookmarks and Navigator will be included in the next release of RAD Studio

    No, just this message box.
  12. Primož Gabrijelčič

    ANN: Parnassus Bookmarks and Navigator will be included in the next release of RAD Studio

    I'm getting this A LOT when right-clicking in the editor: --------------------------- Error --------------------------- A component named ParnassusAddBookmark already exists. --------------------------- OK --------------------------- Clean machine, fresh 10.3.1 install, no other Delphi, Bookmarks & Navigator installed via GetIt. @David Millington ?
  13. Yes, they work 🙂 (and why wouldn't they?). program RecursiveAnon; {$APPTYPE CONSOLE} {$R *.res} uses System.SysUtils; function MakeFib: TFunc<integer,int64>; var fib: TFunc<integer,int64>; begin fib := function (value: integer): int64 begin if value < 3 then Result := 1 else Result := fib(value - 1) + fib(value -2); end; Result := fib; end; begin var fib := MakeFib; for var i := 1 to 10 do Write(fib(i), ' '); Readln; end.
  14. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Recursive anonymous functions

    Of course it is! You can do this: for i := 1 to 10 do Writeln(MakeFib()(i), ' '); As Stefan noted on a side-channel, calling MakeFib causes a memory leak because the anonfunc interface now contains a cyclic reference to itself.
  15. Indeed, I got the "obvious" part from Hoare 🙂 The parallel part is all mine though. And I stand behind it. If one writes a unit test which tests the specification in full, it can in theory prove that a single-threaded unit complies with the specification. Throwing parallel processing in the mix, however, prevents us from even that result. At most one can say is that the unit probably works as expected inside one test environment on one computer.
  16. Indeed. In single-threaded code, good unit tests will show that the code obviously has no errors. In multi-threaded code, good unit tests will show that the code has no obvious errors. IOW, unit tests can only prove that your multi-threaded code doesn't work, not that it does.
  17. BTW, OmniThreadLibrary's TOmniBoundedQueue was implemented in 2008. Then we needed about a year to find few weird boundary conditions where the code would crash and fix them. After that the queue was working perfectly until 2018, when I found a race condition which caused the queue to say "sorry, can't add an item, the queue is full", when the queue has actually just become empty. Nobody noticed the problem in the meantime, we all thought the code is perfect, and the unit/stress test did not test for this specific scenario ... Writing lock-free structures is harder than you think. (Applies to me, too.)
  18. There's a Delphi version, too: http://deadlockempire.4delphi.com/delphi/
  19. As I said before, don't "believe" that the writer works ok - run tests!
  20. The writer also doesn't work. function TMWSRList.AddItem(pItem : Integer):Integer; var aOverFlow : Integer; begin Result := InterlockedIncrement(FWriteIndex); if Result >= MAX_SIZE then begin aOverFlow := Result - MAX_SIZE; { Reset FWriteIndex when it reaches MAX_SIZE } InterlockedCompareExchange(FWriteIndex, -1, MAX_SIZE + aOverFlow); Result := InterlockedIncrement(FWriteIndex); end; FItems[Result] := pItem; InterlockedIncrement(FAvailableCount); if Assigned(FOnNewItemAdd) then FOnNewItemAdd(self); end; FWriteIndex is at the end of array. Two threads call AddItem. Both threads increment FWriteIndex. Both threads enter `if`. Second thread executes InterlockedCompareExchange and InterlockedIncrement. That will skip slot 0 which will never be used, if I'm not mistaken. Plus - what use is InterlockedCompareExchange if you never test if the exchange was successful? Plus - the code doesn't work if the queue overflows (reader stops but writers keep writing). But that is by design, I guess?
  21. Aaaaah, single READER! Sorry, folks. That is such a weird concept (although, I admit, useful in some situations) that my brain autocorrected it into single WRITER. 🙂 🙂 Silly brain!
  22. Definitely doesn't work correctly. For starters, two parallel readers would clash horribly. If you want to implement lock-free structures, start by writing thorough stress-tests. They should run different scenarios - one reader, few readers, many readers ... very many readers (more than the number of cores in the system) - in a loop which runs for a long time (minutes, at least, preferably more). If you want to use something that is well-tested, take TOmniBoundedQueue from the OmniThreadLibrary.
  23. Primož Gabrijelčič

    GExperts Grep can use the MAP file

    Good one, thank you!
  24. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Communication between processes (IPC)

    @Jacek Laskowski, thank you for the correction. I will try to remember that in the future 🙂
  25. Primož Gabrijelčič

    Communication between processes (IPC)

    Alternatives: Named pipes, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/ipc/named-pipes TCP/IP Network DDE, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/ipc/network-dynamic-data-exchange Mailslots, https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows/desktop/ipc/mailslots